Yes we can!
You told them your Destination was Poland, and you applied at Polish embassy, and Your visa is from Poland, and you directly want to go to Poland. No one is going to bother asking about the German route!
This Schengen Zone concept sometimes makes the most basic things look difficult to a visitor. You're good. Enjoy your trip.
No, Schengen days do NOT carry over. Under very few circumstance can you stay more than 90 days in any 180 day period with a short-stay visa.
Schengen Visa Code says:
In certain cases, the period of validity of a visa may be extended
They do not go into further detail than this, but adding days "because you didn't use them" will most definitely not ...
In short, you risk running into problems at the border when you present the visa or are questioned by the border officer about your itinerary.
According to the Schengen visa code:
The Member State competent for examining and deciding on an application for a uniform visa shall be:
(a) the Member State whose territory constitutes the ...
While this isn't explicitly insufficient, it may lead to a refusal of your visa. The consular officer who will examine your application may check the reservation to see if it is valid.
Where you run into an issue is that the officer will most likely not check your flight details within 24h from whenever you made the reservation.
I'd recommend purchasing a ...
You may make minor changes to your itinerary after the application. Usually, moving the date of onward travel between two Schengen countries (or even varying the route) would be minor.
You may not misrepresent your itinerary during the visa application, especially if that would change the consulate which handles your application.
You should not give the ...
Yes, you can go to the city. To get to the gate for your flight to Spain, you have to clear Schengen immigration controls in Amsterdam. You can just as well head to the airport exit instead of your gate (which probably won't be assigned when you arrive anyway).
As noted in a comment, there are actually different sets of immigration control desks for the ...
Only some of these are tick-the-box items or manufacturable. You can buy health insurance, but bank statements and financial means require a body of evidence going back quite some time.
Particularly, they are on guard against people who are being "propped up" financially by outsiders to look self-supporting when they are in fact not. An example is what ...
The change in port of entry will not in itself cause problems.
What I can see might be a problem is that you're now going to several destinations where your sponsor is not. If the sponsorship actually played any role in deciding to grant you a visa, that might be seen as a major change, and those are not allowed.
Usually (but not always), you don't need transit visa if you aren't planning to enter the country in which you're transiting through (provided the airport you are flying through allows you to stay 'airside', which isn't the case, for example, in any US airports).
As a Philippine citizen, you don't need a visa to transit at Amsterdam airport.
The political salience of immigration, technological changes, and concerns over terrorism have all contributed to a much tighter border enforcement but it's important to note that borders in (Western) Europe have long been much more open than in some other parts of the world. I remember the (pre-Schengen) time where many border posts between France and ...