Ramadan (Arabic: رمضان‎ Ramaḍān, Urdu: رَمْضان‎ Ramzān) is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar commonly observed by Muslims worldwide as a month of fasting.

The month lasts 29–30 days based on the visual sightings of the crescent moon. Fasting is obligatory for adult Muslims, except those who are ill, traveling, pregnant, breastfeeding, diabetic or going through menstrual bleeding.

While fasting from dawn until sunset, Muslims refrain from consuming food, drinking liquids, smoking, and engaging in sexual relations; in some interpretations they also refrain from swearing. Food and drink is served daily, before sunrise and after sunset.