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Firstly, I am so confused by this whole process. When I visited The Netherlands a year ago, I didn't bring anything with me but on the way back I brought alcohol and cheese but never declared it and I didn't have a problem.

That being said, this time I am traveling from New York to Amsterdam in a few weeks. I want to take some indian spices with me. I don't need them in my carry on, I'd like to check them in. Firstly, are there any restrictions on this? I already have the spices and the containers have been opened, would I need to put them in a specific kind of container? Additionally, do I need to declare these items on the customs form to the Netherlands?

What about things like fish sauce, oyster sauce, soy sauce, indian chutneys? Can I still pack it even though the package has been opened? Will I need to put it in a special container and do I need to declare these items to customs?

And last thing: Can I bring sugar on a checked luggage and do I have to declare it? And again, does it matter if the package has been opened already?

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    Hard cheese usually isn't a problem but you are very lucky to have not been caught. You can be fined for not declaring food, even if the food is allowed! – Michael Hampton Jul 2 at 18:35
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    @user477465 The relevant quote in that answer is "In the EU strict requirements apply to the import of animal products and food. Examples: cheese, milk and milk products, eggs, meat, fresh or processed fishing products, skins, game trophies. Do you nevertheless still want to import animal products and food into the EU? Then you almost always need a health certificate. In your case, what you plan to carry into the EU (sugar, spices, sauces) is stuff that humans eat, i.e. food. How does this not apply? – DavidSupportsMonica Jul 2 at 18:41
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    And I'll add that Michael Hampton's advice to declare what you're carrying is exactly correct. Customs will probably confiscate the food items, and may toss your luggage, but because you declared the things you had you'll not be fined or otherwise hassled. – DavidSupportsMonica Jul 2 at 18:49
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    @David If you look at the site menu of the page you are linking to, import of fruits and vegetables is discussed on the following page. What OP is intending to do here is covered by the 'exception for small quantities' section. – Tor-Einar Jarnbjo Jul 2 at 20:24
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Dutch Customs has a web portal in English with a description of what is and isn't allowed to be brought in by travelers arriving from outside of the EU here with the short recommendation:

What cannot be imported?

Not all products can simply be brought in. Counterfeit articles, for example, or €10,000 or more, food, and animals and plants.

Followed by some more specific regulations and exemptions.

Cheese is clear cut and falls under the section of "Animal products and foodstuff" and is only allowed with a health certificate (which is probably not worth the effort to obtain) :

Do not import any animal products into the Netherlands from outside the EU. And also do not order them, for example, through the internet. In the EU strict requirements apply to the import of animal products and food. Examples: cheese, milk and milk products, eggs, meat, fresh or processed fishing products, skins, game trophies. Do you nevertheless still want to import animal products and food into the EU? Then you almost always need a health certificate.

The fruit and vegetable category which provides and exemption for "small amounts" for personal use by the traveler.

Sometimes you do not need a phytosanitary certificate and you may import your product without a problem. This is the case if the product:

  • does not pose a serious risk for spreading harmful organisms
  • when it is taken by travellers themselves as luggage for personal use

...
Have these conditions been observed? If this is the case, you do not need a permit for:

  • at most 5 kilos of vegetables or fruit

...

When the individual animal / fruit / vegetable component in food is sufficiently processed and not recognisable as such anymore (for instance the milk in a chocolate bar) food is sometimes allowed. Typical examples of allowed foods are: pastries and cookies, sweets and chocolate.

Spices are allowed when they are

  • dried
  • don't contain a protected plant species
  • don't contain an illegal substance/drug
    (source: the Dutch Customs app, no other online source)

I don't know of any requirements (other than for infants milk) for original and unopened packaging.

Please note that something such as oyster sauce and a chutney, if allowed, is considered a liquid and not allowed in your carry-on luggage when in a container larger than 100 ml.

Also consider that The Netherlands, like many affluent countries import food and spices from all over the world and although specific brands may not be available, or hard to source, most if not all supermarkets will sell some variety of fish, oyster and soy sauce and certainly sugar...

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    And besides supermarkets there are also specialist shops selling foods from a particular country or a wide range of countries. – Willeke Jul 3 at 16:08

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