I already have a work permit for Germany. But I would like to know if I can apply for a business visa for a short visit?
It is first of all not quite clear what you are asking about, but no matter how we guess or interpret the details, the answer is no.
Germany has not been issuing work permits since 2004, so what you have (and call a work permit) must be a residence permit. Residence permits may or may not allow the holder to work. If you already have a residence permit, this permit already gives you more rights in Germany and the same rights as a short-stay visa in all other Schengen countries, so for immigration purposes, there will be absolutely no point in issuing you a new, additional visa.
It is not obviously clear from your question why your salary depends on the immigration status, but that is something you will have to clarify with your employer. German authorities won't issue you a redundant visa, just because your employer in that case will allegedly pay better.