Malta is part of the Schengen area. Because you hold a residence permit issued by a Schengen country, you do not need a visa to visit other Schengen countries.
This is explicit in the Schengen Borders Code, at Article 6(1)(b), which describes the visa requirement thus (emphasis added):
(b) they are in possession of a valid visa, if required pursuant to Council Regulation (EC) No 539/2001, except where they hold a valid residence permit or a valid long-stay visa
To be clear, the term "residence permit" is defined at Article 2(16)(a) (emphasis added):
- ‘residence permit’ means:
(a) all residence permits issued by the Member States according to the uniform format laid down by Council Regulation (EC) No 1030/2002 and residence cards issued in accordance with Directive 2004/38/EC