As @davidvc references, you would not. Using the Republic of Korea Visa Portal Navigator, a search returns these results (country, Philippines, purpose, short term visit; length, less than 90 days)
Tourist/Transit (General) B-2-1 visa
If you satisfy any of the following conditions, you can travel to or transit through Korea without a visa. You will be able to stay for up to 30 days in Korea.
1) Frequent Visitors : You have entered Korea at least 4 times within the past 2 years, or 10 times in your total travel history. Also, you have never violated Korean laws or overstayed in Korea before.
2) Transit Tourists Travelling to a Third Country
- You transit through Korea on your way to the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand and hold a valid visa (including re-entry permit) issued by the aforementioned countries.
- You transit through Korea on your way to a third country or the country of nationality via direct flight from the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand to Korea after legally staying in these respective countries.
To satisfy the second point, you would need a confirmed onward flight ticket (to the Philippines) for departure within 30 days after entering Korea. [Emphasis mine.]
Before you depart, and depending on your location, you might check with the closest Korean Consulate in Canada: Toronto, Montreal, or Vancouver. For convenience, the link is to the relevant visa information page.