Not really. For example, Uzbekistan has a 2x72hr transit visa, but that really doesn't give you time to do much at all. You need to get a tourist visa, and a Letter of Invitation.
It's probably the hardest one to get (although Kazakhstan took me a long time when I was in St Petersburg).
The 'best' resource online for this at present is probably Caravanistan for those countries. They'll tell you exactly what the latest visa requirements are, but essentially, no. That Turkmenistan ferry is notorious for example, for not leaving on time - sometimes waiting a week before it departs, which makes it very, very hard to plan visas around, and would certainly cause you problems even if you could get a 'transit' visa that allowed you to use the ferry.