I hold a China main-land passport. I am doing study abroad from the US to France and Spain. With all the confusion and my poor judgement, now I end up with a short stay visa in France (Schengen visa). This only covered my stay in France but not long enough for my classes in Spain. Is it possible for me to extend my stay in Spain?
I believe you cannot extend short-stay visa. This is based on my own experience. My friend got rejected once because her visa was a short-stay visa and according to some regulations. It cannot be extended. You have to go out of the Schengen area and re-apply for your visa again. In this case it has to be China. They only allow long-stay visa to be extended inside the country.
If you have student visa type "D", you should go to the city offices of the city you are registering to (required if you are staying more than 7 days in one place) and go to the foreigners division. There, you can apply for temporary residency permit, which allows you to stay for the duration of the program.
On the other hand, if you have not applied for a "Student Visa / Type D", I don't think it is possible to extend the duration of your visa. You either have to apply for a new one in China/USA. Recently I have gotten a German visa for Internships/Studies program, from a Consulate in the USA. I am in an exchange program from the USA just like you and given my nationality (Turkey), I have gotten "D" type visa. I could tell you that in my experience, it took me 3 months to get the visa. You should talk to the consulate ASAP.
The students who are not citizens of any European country yet still wish to come and study in Europe must apply for Schengen student visa. Together with the visa, if the duration of the studies is longer than 90 days as it happens with most of the students that wish to complete a whole academic year or even more, students must also apply for the residency permit that allows you to reside in the designated country for a period of one whole year.
Schengen visas (visa category C) can be issued for short-term stays of up to 90 days in the Schengen region, for instance, for tourist visits or visits for business purposes or for medical treatment. The consulates of the Schengen States are responsible for granting Schengen visas.
An extension to a Schengen visa is only possible in exceptional cases where new facts and special reasons arise after entry.
If entry into the Federal Republic of Germany or into another Schengen state is late, the Schengen visa can be extended by the non-used duration of stay.
A Schengen visa which has already expired cannot by extended.