You can use a pay-as-you-go OV-chipkaart to travel by train in the Netherlands (including between Schiphol and Amsterdam CS) but you will need to activate it at a NS vending machine and to have at least €20 credit (boarding fee) when “checking in”. Anonymous pay-as-you-go cards are also available from NS vending machines for €7.5.
It's fine to use pay-as-you-go from Schiphol to the centre since you can probably use up the remaining credit during your stay in Amsterdam but it's a bit of a hassle on the way back if you don't plan to come back to the Netherlands (from Amsterdam CS to Schiphol, the fare is only €4 so that's €16 remaining on the card, plus the €7.5 to buy it in the first place, so that's €23.5 tied into the card on top of the actual fare).
However, you cannot use the trains with a day pass from GVB (if that's the 24-hour card you mentioned in the comments) as it does not cover NS trains. Although it is technically also an OV-chipkaart, you cannot use it for pay-as-you-go either. For a one-time visit, the best option is therefore to buy a single-use OV-chipkaart from NS to go back to the airport. You would therefore use two different RFID cards, one for the GVB network and one for NS trains.
For more details on the OV-chipkaart system, see also OV-chipkaart or GVB day pass for within Amsterdam travel?
PS: There is also something called a Dagkaart that can be loaded on a regular OV-chipkaart but that's something else entirely. You get unlimited train travel on the NS network for one day for €50.80 (second class).