As long as your passport and visa are both valid, you may travel to Canada. Canada does not have a "six-month requirement" as many countries do.
Note from the US State Department: "If you are transiting Canada en route to Europe, your passport must be valid for at least 3 months beyond your planned date of departure from the Schengen area."
You will need your passport (or another acceptable form of identification, but a passport is the most likely document for a foreign visitor to be carrying). Since your visa is most likely inside your passport, you're probably all set.
As a citizen of Trinidad-and-Tobago, you do not need a visa for a short stay in the Schengen area, including France. You will of course need a passport and might be asked to justify the purpose of your trip, show you have sufficient means to cover its costs (e.g. a credit card) and return to the UK or otherwise leave the area.
If you are a resident but not ...