When I was last in Romania in 2007, there were exchange bureaus around the big cities such as Bucharest and Brașov. They were generally well-run and secure. They had their rates posted right outside.
You might find people on the street or in the train offering to exchange money with you. Don't do this. You're going to get ripped off. Either they'll run ...
Yes, but as mentioned in the comments it may cost you more if they charge in AUD as you will be paying for foreign transaction fees. It may be of more benefit to find that same hotel on a different website, that charges in USD.
I will suggest Bitcoin.
As a western-world citizen, - "France" -, you are able to open coinbase.com account. There, you could invest / trade / or withdraw / exchange Bitcoin to Cash and vice versa.
The account required long-time verification procedure, so emergency - this is not your salvation. However, for the future, you could bypass this procedure, by ...
You said you used an credit card for this. Call the credit card issuer and ask to file a dispute. They will probably ask you what you've tried to resolve the dispute yourself, so be prepared to tell them about your unsuccessful attempt at involving the police.
This has happened to me multiple times with local
cards as well so I doubt they target foreign cards.
Every time the police have helped me rather swiftly, provided me with a copy of the case registered which I took to the bank who then changed the money for me without delay at all.
But yes dealing with Chinese police can be frustrating and take a long ...
If there's no pin on the card, there's no pin to enter. Just plug-in & confirm transaction.
I expect, like any other smartcard (the kind of thing the chip is), the system will just skip the pin checking phase. (if there's a pin it needs to be done to communicate with the card)
However, if you are unable to use the chip for whatever reason, you can not ...