No, according to Timatic, the system used by airlines, you do not need a transit visa for Turkey.
To enter Colombia you must have a machine readable passport that is valid for the intended period of stay, and proof of accommodation.
You need a visa and your passport must be less than 10 years old and valid for at least 3 months beyond the period of intended stay.
Source: Timatic, the system used by airlines https://www.timaticweb2.com/integration/external.php?ref=d975cfc59f5c0abd06d16e872198110b
thabetmw's answer already answers the Schengen/Amsterdam part, so for the Panama branch of your layover, according to this source (Spanish) you do not require a visa as long as you do not have to go through Immigration and have a flight on the same airline. This applies to any nationality.
According to Timatic, the system used by airlines, your residence permit means you can visit without a visa:
“The following are exempt from holding a visa:
Passengers with a residence permit issued by Sweden for a maximum stay of 90 days”
Usually (but not always), you don't need transit visa if you aren't planning to enter the country in which you're transiting through (provided the airport you are flying through allows you to stay 'airside', which isn't the case, for example, in any US airports).
As a Philippine citizen, you don't need a visa to transit at Amsterdam airport.
No, you do not need a transit visa for either country. This assumes you have connecting flights on a single ticket from the same airport (Istanbul has three) and you don't need to recheck bags etc.
Per Qatar Airways, anybody can transit through Doha, Qatar without a visa as long as they don't leave the airport.
Turkey's transit visa policy is covered here:...
According to Timatic, the software used by airlines to determine visa requirements for passengers, they will not need a visa as long as their onward flight is on the same CALENDAR day (ie arrive August 12 and leave August 12) and they cannot leave the transit area.
It's possible, but it might depend on luck/kindness of airport staff, and perhaps time if you're in a rush - it might be tricky.
Example: I was flying from Dushanbe, Tajikistan to Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan via Tashkent, Uzbekistan (layover) on two separate tickets, which were very cheap. I realised as I landed in Tashkent that I had no visa for Uzbekistan, and my ...