There is no automatic ban for Canada if you are banned from the United States.
However, because you have to apply for a visa to visit Canada, you will be asked to provide any information about visa denials, refusal of entries as well as deportation/removal proceedings against you in other countries.
Because your incident happened fairly recently, you will ...
The New York state webpage you cite in your question contains this:
All tests performed at these sites are PCR-based laboratory diagnostic tests
The Canada webpage you cite in your question contains this:
Types of Accepted Molecular tests
These test methods are considered acceptable molecular tests:
PCR - Polymerase chain reaction
So the answer is "...
You can quarantine at your final destination.
If you are cleared to fly, you may board a connecting flight to reach your final destination. You do not need to quarantine (self-isolate) before connecting, unless your final destination requires you to quarantine at a designated location first.
Taking your question at face value:
Yes, there are extensive road, rail and bus connections between USA and Canada. There are very many road crossing points on the 8,891km land border between the two countries which allow private cars to cross, and rental cars depending on rental agreements.
Buses and trains run across the border between most major cities, ...
Many people who have criminal records can not travel to Canada without special permission. The Canadian government has an overview of the rules, but many crimes which may seem relatively minor to you are included on the list.
Anecdotally, it seems that the Canadian and US governments share a lot of data here, so it can be difficult to avoid the rules. I know ...
In addition to the other answer, for Canada, one notable exception to the general strict inadmissibility rule on criminality is that you may still be admissible if your only conviction is an offence that could only have been prosecuted summarily in Canada.
You should still ask a Canadian immigration lawyer familiar with the issue, as it is not within the ...