If you had a single ticket, you could take this entire journey without visas. If you did not have checked luggage, you might have been able to do it without visas. However...
Because you have checked luggage and separate tickets, you must clear immigration and transfer your luggage yourself at Amsterdam and at Curaçao. This means you will need visas appropriate to enter both of these countries.
First, Schengen countries do not have a separate visa category for landside transit. You will need to obtain a regular short-stay type C Schengen visa to go landside at Amsterdam to claim your luggage. This costs 60 euros (converted to your local currency) plus VFS service fees. Learn how to apply for the Schengen visa.
The good news is that having the Schengen visa exempts you from the need for a visa to enter Curaçao to claim your luggage and check in for your next flight there. Schengen visa holders may enter Curaçao visa-free.
The transit and destination rules can be found in Timatic, which the airlines will check to verify your travel documents each time you check-in.
Finally, remember to check visa requirements for your return journey.