I'm an Australian permanent resident holding a Philippines passport and I am planning to go on a holiday to South Korea for 10 days. Do I need to apply for a visa? My passport has my return visa attached on it.
As stated by Timatic, the database used by airlines:
Visa required, except for Nationals of Philippines with a residence permit issued by Australia if in transit through Korea (Rep.), holding confirmed onward tickets on flights departing within 30 days, when:
-arriving from Australia, departing to a third country (e.g. SYD-ICN-PVG); or
-arriving from a third country, departing to Australia (e.g. PVG-ICN-SYD); or
-arriving from a third country after having transited that country for a maximum stay of 3 days, departing to Australia (e.g. PVG-SGN-ICN-SYD); or
-arriving from a third country, traveling to another country and staying there for a maximum stay of 3 days, then departing to Australia (e.g. PVG-ICN-SGN-SYD).
So if you don't fly direct in both directions, but make a stopover at least in one direction, you do not need a visa for max 30 days.
Otherwise, you do need a visa
Your passport is what matters, so unless you have Official/Diplomat passport, you will need to apply for Tourist visa.
Settings: Asia>Philippines>Short Term Visit>90 days or less
Visa Exempted(B-1): A person with a diplomatic or official passport of Philippines can visit Korea without a visa and stay for any desired period under the Visa Exemption Agreement between the two countries.
Ordinary Tourist(C-3-9): A person who plans to visit Korea on the purpose of travel for holidays or leisure