In the US it is dependent on the state:
According to USA.gov:
People who drive in the U.S. must have a valid driver's license. Some
states require an International Driving Permit (IDP) from foreign
nationals, in addition to a valid license from your own country.
Then I went to the State of New Jersey, Motor Vehicle Commission, and it states:
Foreign motorists with valid driver licenses from qualifying
countries* are free to drive personal or rental cars while visiting
the United States as a tourist and are advised to carry an
International Driving Permit.
The asterisk led me to the United Nations Convention on Road Traffic, the Convention on the Regulation of Inter-American Motor Vehicle Traffic, and the Vienna Convention on Road Traffic. China is not listed on any of them.
However, that is just New Jersey, in New York,
You can drive in New York State with a valid driver license from
another state or country. You don’t need to apply for a New York State
driver license unless you become a New York State resident.
If you have a driver license from another country you do not need to
have an International Driving Permit, but it is helpful. The permit
verifies in several languages that you have a valid driver license.
Police officers who can’t read the language on your foreign driver
license will be able to read the permit. Contact the authorities in
your home country to get an International Driving Permit.
So yes, there are countries that recognize Chinese licenses as valid - the US, but it's dependent on the state. So they can't drive in NJ, but they can a few miles over in NY.