I want to visit Canada for one day, going and returning from Rochester, New York the next day. Can I do that on a transit visa?
You need a transit visa if you are from a visa-required country and:
your international flight stops at a Canadian airport on its way to another country
you will be connecting between two international flights at a Canadian airport
It's not ultra short term visitor visa. Don't forget to check if you need a visa an eTA might be enough.