I am a Ghanian and am a Canadian permanent resident. Can I transit without a visa through the UK and any EU country on my way to Ghana (such as Amsterdam, Belgium, Italy, Germany)?
It depends...for ex. here in Germany, if you flight to your destiny, there are airports with a "transit-zone" and you, as ghanian with a visum in Canada, can use this transitzones to go from flight to flight, but you cannot leave the transit-zone. Not all airports have this transit-zones.
If you drive by car or take a train then you would need a transit-visa.
I suppose the laws in other EU-countries should not differ a lot from them here in Germany.
You also are making a very generall question, and I recommend you to take a look at the laws in the countries you are going to pass through.