If I have a single entry visa to France can I plan my trip as follows: I will do a transit for 23 hrs in Greece, then continue my trip the second day to Nice, Cannes, Paris, then to Amsterdam, leave from airport to have another transit for one night in Rome then back home?!
A single-entry Schengen visa allows you to enter the Schengen area once.
This is exactly what you're doing, so you're fine. Don't think in terms of entering and leaving countries: think of the Schengen area as a whole. You're entering the area once, in Greece. You're then travelling within it (France, Netherlands, Italy) and then you leave to go home. It doesn't matter that you're going to leave Greece (and France and the Netherlands) because you're not leaving the Schengen area.
Since you're supposed to get the visa from the country where you'll be spending the largest part of your stay, the immigration officials in Greece might want to see hotel bookings, plane/train tickets, etc., to prove that you'll be in France for longer than any of the other countries you're visiting.
Yes. "Single entry" means you can enter the Schengen area once, as Greece, France, The Netherlands and Italy are all parts of Schengen your itinerary would only mean one entry into Schengen.
You'll go through immigration in Greece, where you'll show your visa - be prepared to document that France is the main destination of your trip, so that your visa is obtained rightfully - and then you'll travel within Schengen, for those trips you'll probably not have to show neither visa nor passport.