I know that if a ticket is bought online, the different stops and platforms are described on the ticket. However, would this information be given if bought at the station or train? Also, does the train announce the name of each stop?
There are two ways to buy a ticket at the station:
- From a ticket machine. Usually, you start by searching for a specific connection, and there is a possibility to print the itinerary. However, this is a separate step, you can both buy a ticket without printing the itinerary and print the itinerary without buying a ticket afterwards.
- From a counter. There is a small service charge (2€ the last time I bought a ticket, years ago), but if you are not familiar with the ticket machines (or not sure if there are any special tickets you can use, such as a "Schönes-Wochenende-Ticket"), it might be worth paying the fee. They can print the itinerary if you ask for it (maybe they will do so without being asked, but asking won't hurt).
I don't know about buying a ticket on the train. Note, that this is only possible on long distance trains (IC, ICE, EC), and there is a surcharge (10% of the price IIRC).
Stops are announced (pre-recorded or by the conductor). Do listen to announcements both on the train and on the platform, or check the displays, sometimes platforms change on short notice (mostly caused by delays or blocked tracks), so the information you printed just before departure might be outdated by the time you reach the station where you're connecting.