You shouldn't have a problem with bringing chili powder or tea with you, in either your carry on or checked bagggage. However, if the chili seeds are for propagation, consult the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) Fruits and Vegetables Import Requirements (FAVIR) database at www.aphis.usda.gov.
You would list them on the declaration card you are given on board the aircraft prior to arrival.
All travelers entering the United States are REQUIRED to DECLARE meats, fruits, vegetables, plants, seeds, soil, animals, as well as plant and animal products (including soup or soup products) they may be carrying. The declaration must cover all items carried in checked baggage, carry-on luggage, or in a vehicle.
Importing coffee, tea or spices for personal use
What are the requirements for importing coffee, tea or spices for personal use?
There are no restrictions on the importation of coffee, tea or spices for personal use, although they may be subject to Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) inspections if a Customs and Border Protection (CBP) Officer suspects contamination or insect infestation of the product.
Please note that tea or spices containing fruit or vegetable leaves or seeds, including citrus leaves or seeds, are typically prohibited.
For convenience, here is the link to the General List of Approved Food and Plant Products.