Basically the question:
Israeli citizen's passport has expired while abroad. Is it possible to reenter Israel with an expired passport?
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Yes, Israel Ministry of Foreign Affiars Consular Services FAQ has the following in the Travel Documents section, although the question is Can I enter and exit Israel with my foreign passport? [emphasis mine]
An Israeli citizen must enter and exit Israel with his Israeli passport. If you cannot wait here for issuance of a new passport, you can enter Israel with your Israeli passport even though its validity date has expired. However during your stay in Israel you must go to the Population, Immigration and Border Authority in order to renew your passport for the purpose of exiting Israel.