I'm changing planes in late March in Schiphol with a five hour layover. I've never been to Amsterdam.
Is there anything I can do to see a little bit of Amsterdam and not miss my flight?
If you do not have the visa problem, the train station is at the basement of the airport. Take the train to Amsterdam Centraal and you will reach the city centre. You can spend a good couple of hours there.
Yes, that is possible. The train from Schiphol airport to Amsterdam Central station takes about 18 min (www.ns.nl). From central station there are several sites nearby: you can walk through the 'Kalverstraat' to the Royal Palace at the 'Dam' in just 10-15 minutes for example. However, take into account the time to leave the airport and return to the departure gate in time (some gates are a long way).