I have applied for a Residence Permit in Germany, and while the application is being processed, I've been given a Fiktionsbescheinigung (a temporary permit that allows me to stay in Germany with no consideration to the time left on my "visa"). I am a US citizen, so I don't have to get a visa for Schengen states, but I can only stay in Schengen region for 90 days in every 180 days.
I am assuming that somehow the border folks have access to my permit status, so when I enter or exit Germany, they don't count my time in Germany against my 90 days allocation. However, what if I travel to France by train? There are no border checks so I can travel to France, stay there, and then come back to Germany. Even if I have used up all my Schengen time, since I would be back in Germany, there would be no issue.
However, what if I exit Europe from France? At passport control, they would not know how long I've been in France, out of Germany. How much time would they allocate against my Schengen allowance?
I hope I have not made the above question too complicated, but I don't know how else to frame it.