I am working in Spain as a Turkish citizen. I have a residence/working card for one year. I will need to go to US this spring. I am wondering if I am required to have a tourist visa for this or I am eligible to travel with just my residence/working card and an ESTA.
Your Spanish work permit is not relevant and Turkey is not a US Visa Waiver country, so you need a visa to enter the United States.
Turkish citizens do need a visa for the US, as stated in Timatic. Foreign residency is completely irrelevant
Yes, you mostly definitely need a visa.
Be aware that foreigners seeking a visa while residing in a foreign country may have difficulty proving strong ties to his current residence. Prepare any document that shows ties (wage slips, job contract, assets) to your EU residence, and proof of funds to afford your trip to the US.