There is a provision for issuing Schengen visas at the border (see section 1.7 of this document): apart from meeting all regular criteria, the individual applying must show that they were not in a position to apply for a visa in advance. Furthermore, this entire process comes with the caveat that it is supposed to be exceptional.
I am considering a (single-ticket) non-Schengen to non-Schengen flight itinerary that involves a short (approximately two hour) stopover in Amsterdam.
There is only one flight everyday between Amsterdam and my final destination; missing my connection would probably lead to an overnight halt.
If I were to miss my connection, is there any evidence to suggest that I might be able to successfully apply for a Schengen visa at the airport (and avoid spending the night at Schiphol)?
Alternatively, is there evidence to suggest that missed connections and long layovers are not exceptional enough to warrant the issuance of Schengen visas at the border?
Some (possibly) salient points: I require a visa to enter the Schengen states. I am not from a country whose nationals require a visa to transit through airports in the Schengen states, or from a country where consultations are required with certain national authorities before its citizens can be issued Schengen visas.
I have held multiple short-stay (C) Schengen visas over the last 10 years, of varying (longish) validity- 1/2/3 years. Over the past 5 years, I have visited the Schengen area on average 3-4 times a year, with my average length of stay being a week or so.