As a Chinese citizen, you don't need to have a visa for airside transit anywhere in the Schengen area, including Schiphol. That's assuming your luggage is checked through (so you don't have to pick it up and recheck it).
In principle, you should not have to go through passport control but spot checks are always possible and the only time I experienced that at Schiphol was in fact after a flight from Hong Kong. With a full 747 to process, it did create delays, especially for third-country nationals (EU passport holders were asked to come to the front of the queue first). Other than that the airport is very efficient and 1:25 is tight but perfectly doable.
Beyond that, the expectation is that you would be booked on the next flight to your destination and stay at most a day or so but I don't think there is any explicit threshold and that only applies to scheduled flight times. If the airline was willing to sell the ticket and you happen to miss your flight, you would not be breaking any rules by staying more than 24 hours to wait for the next available flight.
In practice, staying airside for a long time is no problem at Schiphol, the airport is open 24/7 and there are even two hotels directly within the terminal you could go to without leaving the transit area.