I am concerned about the solvency of banks generally, so I would like to convert bank deposits to gold. I plan to purchase the gold in UK, then take it to Spain.
Is there a limit to the amount of gold I can transport?
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There is no limit.
The EU is a common market, so there is no limit to the amount of cash or goods you can move from one to the others, as long they have already passed the EU customs (which is not of application of your case).
There are some exceptions to this (drugs, military arms, excise goods as alcohol or tobacco who are taxed specifically by the governments) but gold is not one of them. In fact, IIRC gold bullion is considered more as an investment/currency than a purchase and it is exempt from VAT.
A different issue is that as most people have their assets in banks and use electronic transfers, people moving large amounts of cash and other untraceable valuables with them may be questioned by police officers about the source of those, as there is a risk that they have got them through criminal means.
If you pass some limit, you will have to declare the amount of gold that you are carrying with you. You should check with your bank/dealer what kind of documentation you need to show that your gold has a legitimate origin.