You are Pinoy and have received a Standard Visitor Visa, well done! I assume your premise was to maintain family relationships and you have a co-sponsor in the UK.
So when the IO asks the purpose of your visit, you would explain: "I visiting the UK to maintain family relationships and I have an entry clearance."
Having an entry clearance changes the format of the landing interview to a much lighter and more formal exchange. But having said that, it's best practices for everyone, regardless of nationality, to be prepared for the IO's line of enquiry (whether a visa is required or not).
Are there any documents needed to provide at the UK Border, aside from
passport (e.g travel insurance, medical insurance, the documents
provided during visa application)?
Essentially you have covered all the bases, importantly, you will be carrying the stuff you submitted with your application. If it's asked for you can say "Of course, these are the items I submitted in order to maintain family relationships".
About travel and medical insurance... The NHS will treat you free of charge for first level emergencies and after that you will need to pay them, so having some insurance is a great idea. There is no explicit requirement for travel insurance, but IO's like to see it, especially when there is a co-sponsor involved.
Finally, you need to be prepared to show absolute hard evidence of your onward travel. You did not have to do this for your application, but on arrival you are subject to the same conditions as Americans, Canadians, Aussies and the like. They need to show onward travel and so do you.
Do I need to show money?
No, this would be very unusual. You have an entry clearance with a co-sponsor in the UK.
I've read some posts that some were refused entry at UK Border due to
insufficient funds to cover trip.
You should read them again or better, recognise that the net is a very imprecise medium. Those were non-visa nationals who do not require an entry clearance. They showed up for their landing interview and could not demonstrate that they qualified as a visitor, so they got removed. As I explained above, the UK government has already inspected you. 'Entry Clearance' means 'cleared to enter the UK'. We now turn to Paragraph 25 of the rules...
Entry clearance takes the form of a visa (for visa nationals) or an
entry certificate (for non visa nationals). These documents are to be
taken as evidence of the holder’s eligibility for entry into the
United Kingdom, and accordingly accepted as “entry clearances” within
the meaning of the Immigration Act 1971.
And we extract a few lines from Paragraph 25A...
The holder of such an entry clearance will not require leave to enter
on arrival in the United Kingdom and, for the purposes of these Rules,
will be treated as a person who has arrived in the United Kingdom with
leave to enter the United Kingdom which is in force but which was
given to him before his arrival.
So 'cleared' means 'cleared', it's just that simple. It's why I tell Americans and Kiwis etc to get an entry clearance if they expect problems. It reduces the chances of wasted airfares and the possibility of removal from port. It still leaves the opportunity to get the IO upset if you are a smart ass, but hopefully you have enough positive personal impact to avoid that.
It's a great question, but you missed the most important aspect of this. Your co-sponsor needs to be in the entrance gallery waiting for you and prepared to tell an IO 'yes, that's my relation'. This is where problems arise, so take care about it. Your co-sponsor needs to be at the airport, paying attention, and contactable. Write his mobile number down on a separate sheet of paper in your carry on so the IO can call him. Sometimes if the IO wants to go out and speak to the co-sponsor personally, you can be really helpful and show him a photograph so that he will recognise him in the entrance gallery (this is overthinking it, but I'm a guy who overthinks everything when it comes to dealing with IO's).
The IO is also entitled to ask your co-sponsor what the transportation arrangements are to get you from the airport to your accommodation. So be sure your co-sponsor is there waiting for you and has arranged suitable transportation to get you to his house.
My sister is Pinoy and living in Las Vegas, so all the best of luck.