Schengen doesn't really enter the picture here. A Schengen visa issued by Poland does entitle you to enter the Schengen Area through one member state and continue towards another "domestically".
The important consideration is whether you book the two flights on a single ticket in one transaction or on two different tickets that you purchase separately from the airline.
With a single ticket you should be fine. You can expect that your baggage will be checked through to your final destination in Poland, and if your first leg is delayed so you miss the second one, the airline will be responsible to getting you rebooked on a later connection at no cost to you.
However, if you buy two tickets separately, the general rule is that you're on your own. If the first flight is delayed so much that you don't catch your second flight, you will be stranded in Norway with no onwards ticket, and neither of the airlines will have any duty to help you out. Arranging for alternative transportation to Poland on short notice can be very expensive.
It can work, though, especially if you plan a really generous connection time (I'd say 12 hours or more if you arrive on an intercontinental flight), but you still have to be more risk tolerant than you do for a connecting flight on the same booking.
(You would also need to retrieve your baggage when arriving in Norway and then check it in to the next flight yourself -- which would require you to clear customs in Norway and then again in Poland afterwards, since Norway is not in the EU. But that's a relatively minor issue).