After seeing the comments here, I tried it myself.
Can you get it? - Yes you can, still today.
I asked in China Eastern and Korean Air, both in economy and large cabin, in 2016.
You can ask an attendant once you finish eating, and he/she kindly starts to check if they can serve it for you.
However, whether it is only a main dish or whole dish depends on the airline (and attendant oneself and also random chance). In China Eastern I only got a main dish, but I didn't like to bother to complaining about it (and it was enough), so didn't make any further actions.
When you ask, the tips by other answers would likely work to your favor; be polite, wait for the end of the distribution of meal, and don't disturb. However, I want to add one more tips; you shouldn't ask it shortly before the start of collections of finished meal. In this case, attendants have to care about only you once after they finish collecting all the other passangers' meal. So make sure your second meal is going to be collected with others'.
However, some airlines don't allow it for whatever reasons. I asked at Asiana Airlines a few times (different flight, route, and crew) but I got declined in all of them. In fact when I asked one attendant she immediately got to ask a more elderly attendant (maybe a chief) and the answer was NO. So in these airlines, you could never get an extra meal, unfortunately...