I'm a student in Spain, I have visa type D but expired date. I have NIE (residence permit) in Spain. I can travel from Spain to other countries but I don't know I can travel to multiple countries ? For example, Spain-Italy-France-Netherlands-Turkey-Spain.
The Schengen rules make essentially no difference between a valid type D visa and a valid residence permit.
Either of them gives you travel rights similar to a multiple-entry short-stay Schengen visa, and time you spend in Spain under a type D visa or residence permit do not count towards your 90/180 day clock.
It is completely permitted to travel between other Schengen countries (or between other Schengen countries and any non-Schengen country that will let you in), as long as you abide by the 90/180 rule.
As for the particular itinerary you suggest, note that Turkey is not in the Schengen area. You'll need a separate visa to go there, but holding a residence permit in a Schengen country you may qualify for an e-Visa instead of a regular visa.