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I am thinking about traveling to South America this Autumn.

I don't know which countries I will visit but I know it will be several of them and I will stay there for 1 or 2 months.

Do I need or should I get any vaccination? If yes, how long before?

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    It depends what you are doing and what time of the year you are going. South America is a huge place with many varied health risks. If you are only staying in the centre of Buenos Aires conducting business negotiations then you will have different problems to someone backpacking through the Amazon cataloguing new species of ants. – Calchas Apr 1 '16 at 19:51
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Depending slightly on where you are from, yes, you do. Both types of Hepatitis are a risk in all of South America (which depends on region again). Also Tetanus is recommended to get vaccinated against, and a few others depending on destination. See http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel.

The Hepatitis A and B combination is best taken 6 months before leaving (3 injections) but provides adequate protection after the first 2 injections, of which the second can be taken after about a month. Tetanus only requires 1 injection. In any case, getting vaccinated on the day you leave provides some protection still, so it is always recommended to get vaccinated, even last minute.

In any case consult a medical professional!

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