To expand on @chx's answer - you will land and depart from the same terminal; and you have plenty of time to relax during the stop - stretch your legs, go for a walk, etc.
Your bags will be checked through; as you have cleared immigration on Dublin (which includes your baggage).
It seems you are booked on United 22, which lands at Terminal C.
The closest burger place would be Custom Burger (at gate C99, your flight on Sunday landed at C95) - although honestly I have never heard of this chain so cannot comment on its culinary value.
EWR is a United hub (its 3rd busiest), so you'll have plenty of hustle and bustle which should keep you occupied - I personally do not like empty terminals.
As far as procedures are concerned, your flight into the US would be just like a domestic flight within the EU; you would land - deplane and enter the transit lounge.
You would then look up the gate and departure time for your connecting flight (it may have changed from what was printed on your boarding pass handed to you at Dublin); and then decide how to spend your time (it'll be enjoying burgers in your case) with shopping or just relaxing in the lounge or stretching your legs with a walk.
There is 30 minutes of complimentary WiFi available at the airport - so at least you can catch up/tweet/email if you need to get in touch with your party.
Once your next flight is called simply approach the gate where your boarding pass and passport will be checked. Upon landing in Ft. Lauderdale, follow the signs to baggage claim to collect your luggage which was checked in at Dublin.