There are two things to mind, the shape of the plug and the voltage. Frequency sometimes matters for clocks and analog devices but less so with modern ones.
The standard US plus is two flat prongs and optionally a rounded one for ground. This looks like the one shown top-left on your photo.
Carefully read the specification on your device, those which support voltages from 100-240V only need a plug adapter which are very cheap to get ($1 - $10). We normally refer to these as voltage-switching devices. Sometimes you need to look up the manual or just read an inscription on the charger. Almost all laptops, phones and tablet chargers fall into this category.
For devices which use a fixed voltage, you will need a power converter. Those usually also correct for the plug shape too. Usually irons and blow-dryers fall into this category. A power converter could cost around $10-$25 depending on how much current it supports.
Modern gadgets that charge via USB are the easiest to use with since you can buy a voltage-switching USB power-adapter. Mine is a combined universal plug adapter with 2 USB ports. It looks like this one from Amazon (the one I use appears not to be available anymore).