British citizens are certainly not limited to 90 days in any 180-day period. Before I explain the rules that do apply to you, let's consider where the 90-days-in-any-180-day-period limit comes from, namely article 5 of the Schengen Borders Code:
Entry conditions for third-country nationals
- For intended stays on the territory of the Member States of a duration of no more than 90 days in any 180-day period, which entails considering the 180-day period preceding each day of stay, the entry conditions for third-country nationals shall be the following:
“Third-country nationals” means everybody who isn't an EU (technically EEA/Swiss) citizen. This rule explicitly does not apply to you.
Furthermore, the same regulation also provides that:
This Regulation shall apply to any person crossing the internal or external borders of Member States, without prejudice to:
(a) the rights of persons enjoying the right of free movement under Union law; […]
As a British citizen, you are “a person enjoying the right of free movement under Union law” and those free movement rules trump any Schengen rule.
There is however a kind of 90-day limit that does apply to you, found in particular in directive 2004/38/EC, whose article 6 provide that
- Union citizens shall have the right of residence on the territory of another Member State for a period of up to three months without any conditions or any formalities other than the requirement to hold a valid identity card or passport.
That's as comprehensive as it gets. It means that if you intend to stay less than three months in any EU country, you can do it without fulfilling any special requirement beside being able to prove you are a British citizen (i.e. holding a passport). At most, you might have to report your presence to the authorities, as explained on europa.eu.
By contrast, article 7 reads:
- All Union citizens shall have the right of residence on the territory of another Member State for a period of longer than three months if they:
(a) are workers or self-employed persons in the host Member State; or
(b) have sufficient resources for themselves and their family members not to become a burden on the social assistance system of the host Member State during their period of residence and have comprehensive sickness insurance cover in the host Member State; or
— are enrolled at a private or public establishment, accredited or financed by the host Member State on the basis of its legislation or administrative practice, for the principal purpose of following a course of study, including vocational training; and
— have comprehensive sickness insurance cover in the host Member State and assure the relevant national authority, by means of a declaration or by such equivalent means as they may choose, that they have sufficient resources for themselves and their family members not to become a burden on the social assistance system of the host Member State during their period of residence; or
(d) are family members accompanying or joining a Union citizen who satisfies the conditions referred to in points (a), (b) or (c).
That's one of the places where you can find a reference to being a worker, etc. The way this works is that if you are a worker (or student or have sufficient resources) then you are definitely entitled to stay, possibly after registering yourself in some way.
But even if you don't fulfill any of the conditions, there is a twist. You cannot be detained or forcibly removed and usually you cannot even be fined merely because you are present for more than 90 days on the territory of a member state. What this article means is that the member state can then ask you to leave, which is much more difficult under article 6.
Some countries also offer more generous conditions and most do not actively enforce these requirements so the 90-day limit only becomes relevant when you live somewhere and need to complete some formalities, like getting some personal tax number, opening a bank account, etc. You might then be asked for a proof of address (unlike the UK, many countries have a mandatory registration system) and to show that you have the right to reside in the country.
Those rules are especially relevant when trying to get welfare benefits (cf. the “not [to] become a burden on the social assistance system” stipulation under article 7(1)(b)). So if you don't need to register and don't attract attention to yourself say by applying for some benefits, nobody will ask you anything. You don't have a right to stay in the country but until you hit a point where you have to prove you qualify, it's not illegal to do it either.
Incidentally, the threshold applies to one country at a time, so 90 days in Greece followed by 90 days in Cyprus followed by 90 days in Bulgaria, etc. are OK in any case.