Fingerprints are stored in the Visa Information System (VIS) database for five years and can be reused for new visa applications. So the Polish consulate already has your fingerprints on file from the time you applied for a French visa and did not need to collect them again for your new visa.
Beyond that, some consulates are not equipped to collect biometrics (yet) as this is relatively new and still being rolled out, region by region (well, it started in 2011 but these things take time). In principle, all Schengen consulates should eventually do it everywhere, by the end of 2015.
Whatever the case may be, I am not aware of any systematic fingerprinting at airports when the fingerprints are not already on file. It would take a long time and serve little purpose, at least as far as visas are concerned because the main point of the biometrics is to make sure the person presenting herself at the border is indeed the same person who applied for the visa. But if you didn't collect any data during the application for comparison, that's moot.
Of course, border guards at the airport can always take fingerprints on a case-by-case basis to compare them with those in the VIS or possibly other databases like the SIS and EURODAC. In principle, a (mis)match should not automatically result in a removal but it would certainly lead to more extensive questioning.