You can find information relative to fishing here: http://www.dgrm.min-agricultura.pt/xportal/xmain?xpid=dgrm&xpgid=genericPageV2&conteudoDetalhe_v2=170183
Unfortunatly I didn't find a translation but I'll make a summary:
You don't need a license for:
- recreational catch, made by hand, without using any capture vessels.
Else you need to get a license. Regarding duration, you can choose 3 types:
- 1 year long
Regarding the type of fishing you can choose between:
- On foot (if you are standing on a rock for example)
- In boat
- Grouped license including all the ones described before
For someone with a portuguese debit card it's very simple to get a license. You get it in the ATM machine. For foreigners this might not be so easy unless you know someone who can do that for you.
You can do it either by:
- Directly, through application for recreational fishing license by e-mail, accompanied by proof of payment and identification of the applicant (maximum license Delivery: 5 working days after receipt of payment);
- In DGRM services or the Regional Directions of Agriculture and Fisheries of the North, Centre, Lisbon and Tagus Valley, Alentejo and Algarve, during Customer Service hours, every working day.
Foreign citizens should indicate the number of passport, the ID card issued in the country of origin or residence permit in Portugal.
The contacts for the authority managin these are here: http://www.dgrm.min-agricultura.pt/xportal/xmain?xpid=dgrm&actualmenu=1463306&selectedmenu=1463309&xpgid=genericPageV2&conteudoDetalhe_v2=53763
I would either call or send them an email to know more about request by email.
Note: You are probably aware of this, but, even with a license, you can't fish all species at any given time. There are specific periods that you can't fish a particular specie (eg.: when mating, etc)