According to the Consulate General of France in London:
To apply for a visa from the French Authorities in London:
You must hold a valid and recognized passport/ travel document;
You must be resident in the UK
Your UK residency must have at least 3 months validity after the intended date of departure from the Schengen area.
As per the decree 2008-1176 of the 13th of November 2008, the French Consulate, London, is not competent in processing visa applications
of people not resident in the UK, i.e. holders of ’C-Visit’ visas or
of a British visa valid for 6 months or less. People who are not
resident in the UK must apply for their Schengen visas at the French
Consulate in their country of residence.
So to answer your questions:
- Only you can apply for a Schengen visa in the UK, since your visa is valid for more than 6 months
- Your wife and daughter should apply for a visa back at their country of residence.