I am an Indian, currently residing in the UK with a student visa. I would like to visit a few European countries including Germany, Norway and Sweden. Do I need a Schengen visa for this?
UK Council for International Student Affairs addresses this very question:
If you are not a European Economic Area national and want to travel to Europe, you may be required to apply for a Schengen visa before you travel.
Given the fact that you require a Schengen visa to enter the area you will need to get one. The UK student visa doesn't entitle you for Schengen visit.