There is! On the quay side in Stavanger, near the ferry terminal, is quite a fancy modernist building housing the Norwegian Petroleum Museum (Norsk Oljemuseum)
Virtually the whole museum is bilingual, so both Norwegians and English speakers can enjoy visiting. It's divided into quite a few sections, covering the history, geology, engineering, development, economics, politics etc. Unlike some museums, it's pretty honest on the downsides too, with large sections on climate change, environmental impacts, safety, disasters, health impacts on workers etc.
One part of the museum even features a mock drilling rig, as shown on the left here:
Throughout the museum are lots of hands-on exhibits, aimed at children, but many of which the child-at-heart adult can enjoy too :)
You can probably hit some of the key parts of the museum in 30 minutes, I got there 2 hours before closing and still had things to see when they politely asked me to leave so they could go home...!