Suppose I get a work visa to work in Paris. Does that mean I can take a train and travel anywhere within the Schengen region, though I do not have a tourist visa? Or should I carry a tourist visa from specific consulates in addition to the work visa?
As @GayotFow already commented you would almost certainly be allowed to travel in the Schengen area based on your visa (and, later, your residence permit). You would also be allowed to enter the Schengen area through any member state, and not only France.
There are a few corner cases and special documents that do not allow that, but you are unlikely to get those if you come to Paris to work. Specifically, it's the case for the documents given to asylum seekers and for the receipt you get when you first apply for a residence permit (it takes several months so you have to be careful with the timing not to get stuck in France with no visa and only that receipt).
If you need a visa for any of this and with a few caveats, a French long-stay visa or residence permit might also give you the right to visit some other EU and non-EU countries or to transit in the UK without a visa.