You can obtain an egyptian visa in India from the embassy in New Delhi or consulate in Mumbai. This website states that "there is no need to appear personally at the embassy to apply for the Egypt visa. You can also apply with the help of any visa agents".
Regarding one-way ticket; I cannot answer specifically for Filipino's but in my experience of back-backing overland or using one way tickets i have never encountered a problem. As often proof of return or onward travel seems to be a requirement, though this online agent suggests that a travel itinerary should be sufficient absent a return ticket. If you add a cover letter explaining your intentions and proof of your previous travels i doubt you'll have any trouble obtaining a visa.
The lack of return ticket is occasionally questioned by customs but easily answered if you look like a tourist (and not a potential migrant) and your passport is full of visas and stamps from previous countries.
To make sure you could talk to a visa agent online or in India. Better yet contact now the Egyptian embassy in India with your query: firstname.lastname@example.org.
In the worst case book a flexible ticket from Egypt to Kenya. That should meet Egyptian authorities' onward travel requirement.