As I understand it, you applied for a UK visa and you want your passport in order to make a flight to Switzerland. You have several options...
Strawman option: try to contact the British mission handling your application and get them to accelerate your application. This is a poor option because they have heard it all before and they advise against purchasing air tickets in advance of a visa application and they will either ignore the request or reply with a formulaic email. Worse, it could place you in breach of the agreement you made when you submitted the application. Anyhow, the British issuing post in Sweden was hubbed in 2013, which means all your stuff was sent to Croydon and that would be your point of attempted contact.
Good option: Contact their commercial partner, Teleperformance, and tell them you want to upgrade your application to priority. Depending upon where your application is in the pipeline and your visa history, you may qualify for a priority upgrade, and in some cases even if you have already submitted the application. These services attract a sliding fee depending upon what priority you select, from about GBP 120 to GBP 15,000 (converted to local currency).
Less attractive option: Contact Teleperformance and have them withdraw your application. Again, depending upon where your application is in the pipeline you may be able to do this. They treat this as a rejection; it does not count as a refusal. The downside risk is that the rejection also takes time to process, and possibly the same amount of time as if the app had not been withdrawn.
Adventurous option: You can try to use your residence permit as a travel document. The outcome of this strategy is indeterminate because you are not an EEA national and not permanently settled in the EEA.
For your last question, no, you cannot temporarily withdraw your passport from a live application. There are lots of reasons for this, and you agreed to it in the declaration when you submitted the application. They will instead reject the application.