I was travelling out of Turkey the other day and was surprised that they have exit immigration (checking passports/visas on the way out). This introduces somewhat of a delay into the airport process, so it's helpful to know in advance whether it's going to happen when visiting a new country.
I'm from the UK, where we don't do this (well, we do, but it's only very recently introduced, and electronic, so is mostly transparent for air travel). In the US, I believe exit records are electronic also. Schengen countries have exit immigration when leaving Schengen but it is mostly incidental/very quick for EU citizens.
Is there any comprehensive or consistent way to know if a country is going to have exit immigration before you get to the airport in order to factor that into your timings?
Note: I am mostly focused on airport travel here, although a more general answer could be helpful.