The Home Office sponsors a type of help desk where people can call them or exchange emails or even engage in live chat.
When someone calls the Home Office with a question about a Visitor Visa and the help desk provides an answer which is totally wrong (or even worse, harmful), what recourse is available?
For example, someone might be told on the phone that it's fine to submit credit card statements in lieu of bank statements. And then their application is refused.
When something like this happens and the person gets removed from port or has an application refused, the person may react with anger or indignation because they acted in good faith from an "official source" and acquired a pejorative immigration history as a result. The loss of GBP 83 application fee may be insubstantial to the person, but few would consider this to be the main point anyway.
The Home Office also sponsors a complaint procedure, but it's already known that filing a complaint about a refusal will not cause them to reverse a decision. And after a person has been removed from port, a complaint from abroad is likely to be seen as futile.
Can the person insist upon receiving a visa? Or can they take the Home Office to court to recover their lost expenses? If the help line gave the person a positive expectation that their application would be refused, does it count as a contract?
Beyond using the Home Office's complaint procedure, what path(s) of recourse is/are available to the person who received bad/inaccurate information from the official Home Office help line?
Credible/authoritative sources please.