If it's a VISA debit cart, then it can be used as a credit card anywhere VISA is accepted, so you shouldn't have to worry about it.
Note that many rental companies will want to charge the deposit to the card - most likely in the area of €200-300. This money will be unavailable to you if the charge is on the debit card.
While it's easy to determine whether the card is a debit or credit card (often, but not always) by the card number alone, the rental company won't care. All they need is to be able to charge the amount owed to them.
On a separate note, I strongly advise that you think carefully whether you really need a car in Paris. Paris is one of the worst cities in Europe to drive in.
Updated based on the comment:
If you want to rent the car to go to Belgium, you may need to inform the rental company that you will be taking the car out of the country - which in turn may make the cost of rental more expensive. You will likely be breaking the terms of your rental contract if you take the car across the country border without notifying the rental company.