It seems the answer is maybe depending on if the train has checked baggage service or not and if your bike is a folding bike or not, according to the website from your post.
The following articles can only be transported if checked baggage
service is available on your train. If there is no checked baggage
service, you cannot carry these articles.
Articles exceeding 66 × 46 × 23 cm (26 × 18 × 9 in.)
Articles weighing more than 23 kg (50 lb.)
Canoes, kayaks, sailboards
Bicycles require specific protection. We recommend that you store your bicycle in a special protective box, which you can obtain free of
charge at the station. You’ll need to turn the handlebars and remove
the pedals, so bring the necessary tools with you as we cannot supply
If you cannot remove the pedals from your bicycle, we can provide you with a protective bag instead of a box.
However, if your bicycle is not boxed, VIA Rail accepts no liability in the event of damage.
The bicycle protection box is only meant to protect VIA because they do not want to take responsibility on damaged bikes. So if you boarding a train that has the service from a remote station which means you cannot get a box
The list about the Northern routes is there to specify unusual items that could be common in those areas. For example, you probably won't see people carrying carcasses in Toronto.
I am not sure which stop you are at but there is also a paragraph about which train you are on
If your train does not have a baggage car, no checked baggage service
will be offered. You will therefore have to comply with the carry-on
baggage policy. Please refer to the carry-on baggage section for more
The carry on link is http://www.viarail.ca/en/travel-info/baggage/carry-baggage in that page they do mention folding bicycles can be carried on as long as it fits that dimension (62 inch linear).
I honestly find some of this or the combination of some of the info confusing. It is best to give them a call so you can ask for specifics.
1-888 VIA RAIL (842-7245)