The question Where can I find historical data on arrival and departure times of a particular flight? only deals with flights in the US sourced from the Bureau of Transportation Statistics . Is there some similar source for EU, Asia etc?
What do you want to know about these flights? The websites shown in the other question are advertised as flight trackers more than providers of historical data about flights. It is hard to tell from your question what kind of data you expect, so here are some websites and their sources.
As @CGCampbell points out, FlightStats claims to "collect flight and airport information from a multitude of global sources" without telling which ones. FlightAware also mentions around 50 government sources in Europe, Oceania, North America. It also uses a network of ADS-B receivers, basically some kind of radars tracking planes. FlightRadar24 says it uses first the same ADS-B technology and secondarily the FAA data.
Also, if you want to track a flight, most airports have a list of live flights, most likely relying on their own radars. So if you have a specific airport in mind, you'd better go on its website to check.
Open data portals such as data.gov.uk or data.gouv.fr did not result in very relevant data sets or apps. The only one I found was a World Bank data set showing the number of flights from or to a country from 1970 to 2010, but I expect that by historical flight data you mean detailed information about a specific flight.
OpenData.SE has a question on the topic and show a lot of sources but few might interest you.
I recommend you to visit and even ask on these other StackExchange websites, as some more knowledgeable people may be able to answer your more specific question.