Short Answer: You need a visa.
I don't think you'll be able to start your journey as the Qatar Airways check-in counter will refuse to give you a boarding pass because your flight is to Dubai and you do not have documentation showing that you can enter Dubai.
Assuming somehow that you are able to get a boarding pass and check-in your luggage; your journey is strictly to Dubai - this includes your baggage.
In order to continue your journey, you will have to collect your bags; go to the check-in counter; re-check your bags; collect your boarding pass and then go through security and customs - just as if you were starting your journey in Dubai. All this requires a visa to enter Dubai.
You have one thing going for you - if you can show the forward ticket and speak to the customs officer, they might give you a transit visa but this depends on the time between your flights.
If its a short transit then you might have a difficult case; however the customs officers are quite friendly and if you explain your case you might get an exception - but do not rely on this.
The best way to guarantee your honeymoon isn't cut short:
Depending on the time between your flights; you can choose to book a night at a hotel in Dubai and have them arrange a visa for you.
Reschedule your flights so that you are on one carrier (or codeshare flight); this way your baggage will be checked through till your final destination.